El pasado casi nunca queda atrás: gestualidad y expresión del tiempo en español

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24201/clecm.v7i1.147

Palabras clave:

Metáforas temporales, gestualidad, gestos temporales, locus espaciales, marcos referenciales

Resumen

Diversos estudios han descrito patrones de expresión del tiempo en términos del espacio que distinguen a las lenguas del mundo. Mientras que expresiones como ‘deja el pasado atrás’ muestran un patrón común a lenguas como el español y el inglés, otras lenguas, como el aymara y el chino mandarín, pueden expresar el pasado situado al frente o arriba, respectivamente. No obstante, al observar con mayor detalle el alcance de estos patrones, se evidencia también que la gestualidad y la lengua son componentes complementarios del lenguaje y no sirven los mismos propósitos comunicativos. Mientras que un hablante puede expresar oralmente que un evento futuro está frente a él, gestualmente puede ubicarlo a su derecha. En el presente estudio describimos a la gestualidad que participa en las expresiones temporales en español, mostrando cómo la caracterización de las lenguas según sus distintos marcos referenciales tempoespaciales no describe adecuadamente los recursos observados en las interacciones comunicativas. Los hablantes, fuera de algunas expresiones orales y, más frecuentemente, de la lengua escrita, no reproducen patrones del tipo el pasado atrás en una conversación y, en cambio, ubican gestualmente a los eventos en distintas zonas del espacio de acuerdo con su percepción y representación: la posición de su interlocutor, la representación de las relaciones espaciales y, en general, claves de las características perceptuales del evento. Los resultados de este estudio coinciden con otros trabajos que parten de una perspectiva según la cual las representaciones conceptuales sobre el tiempo y el espacio no son únicas ni fijas, sino múltiples y emergentes, respondiendo a distintos contextos de interacción. Se presenta una perspectiva diferente de la gestualidad, según la cual, su papel en el lenguaje es la expresión de la información perceptual, icónica o metafórica, que solo ocasionalmente interviene en la codificación lingüística del tiempo.

Citas

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Publicado

2020-08-11

Cómo citar

Escobar L.-Dellamary, L. D., & Ramírez, I. (2020). El pasado casi nunca queda atrás: gestualidad y expresión del tiempo en español . Cuadernos De Lingüística De El Colegio De México, 7(1), 1-45. https://doi.org/10.24201/clecm.v7i1.147

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